What are fruits - Vital fruits
Fruits

What are fruits

What are fruit?

what are fruit

a fruit is a matured ovary or ovaries of flowering plants, form a more homogeneous food group than vegetables and greens. There are, however, differences in its nutritional value and in its conservation possibilities; these concern conformation (peel fruit is often less fragile than thin-skinned fruit),

color (colored fruit is much richer in vitamins A and C), and diversity of genetic selection. It is at full maturity that fruit reaches the maximum of its nutritional and gustatory qualities but ripe fruit does not always transport well and good fruit is not always beautiful:

the selected varieties were chosen more for their good suitability for transport and good looking than for taste or vitamin value. There are very often discrepancies between the botanical concept of fruit – intended as a product of the transformation of the ovary of the flower after fertilization – which also includes some vegetables such as aubergines, tomatoes, pumpkins, .

And the meaning that is correctly attributed to it, namely that of food that usually serves to end a meal. For the botanist, therefore, there is no difference between fruit and vegetables: an eggplant is a real fruit as much as a peach, even if it is not sweet! Still from a botanical point of view, the function of the fruit is to protect and accompany the development of the seeds and embryos contained in them, also favoring the dissemination.

which is useful for the plant for the spread of the species and to reduce competition phenomena. ‘interior of the same species that we would have if the new plants were born at the foot of the mother plant.

How the fruit is made up and how it is classified in general

in the fruit we distinguish three layers:

1. exocarp

2. mesocarp

3. endocarp

which together form the pericarp that surrounds the seed or seeds.

Sometimes these three layers are very evident, for example in peaches they correspond to the skin, pulp, and stone containing the seed. Many other times, however, these layers are much less distinguishable, for example in grapes.

The first classification of the fruits is between true fruits and false fruits or apples. In the first case, the fruit derives only from the ovary of the flower, in the second also from the receptacle that surrounds the ovary (for example in an apple or a pear: the part we eat comes from the receptacle, the part instead that contains the seeds and that we discard derives from the ovary).

A second distinction is between fleshy fruits and dried fruits. For the distinction it is necessary to observe the fruit at maturity, that is when the seeds are fully developed and ready for dissemination. If at this point the fruit is still more or less pulpy and hydrated, it is a fleshy fruit (apples, watermelons, lemons), if instead, all the cells of the fruit are dehydrated and therefore dead and alive there are only the seeds contained in it

then it is a dry fruit (hazelnut, legume, caryopsis). For botany, these “dried fruits” are a completely different thing from ” dried fruit “: for example, the almond tree and the peach tree produce the same type of fleshy fruit, the drupe, except that we eat from the almond what we throw away from a peach, that is the seed contained in the core. Given the extreme variety of nutritional principles in the different fruits, there is also the need to divide the fruit into:

sour-sugary: apples, pears, peaches, plums, grapes, apricots, cherries, strawberries, raspberries;

 

acidulous: it contains about 15% of sugars providing a maximum caloric intake of about 60Kcal (citrus);

 

sugary: it contains more than 15% of sugars providing a caloric intake higher than 70 Kcal (figs, bananas, pineapples);

floury: chestnuts;

oily: it contains a high quantity of lipids (50-65%) and proteins (10-20%) as well as a fair quantity of carbohydrates (15-20%). The caloric intake is about 600 Kcal (peanuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, p ine nuts, pistachios).

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